Audio Glossary: I

'Ibadah is the abstract noun defining the attitude of the 'abd, or servant (of God), and is applied generally to any Muslim act of worship, and specifically to salat.
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A symbolic sacred image, venerated and used in religious ceremonies by Orthodox Christians, who see them as material embodiments of spiritual meaning and power.
Muslim version of the name of the Biblical character known by Jews and Christians as Abraham.
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In Islam an original judgement on a matter of law not covered by Qur'an, Sunnah, taqlid (established precedent) or qiyas (direct analogy with known laws). For most Sunni Muslims 'the door of ijtihad is closed' but in Shi'a Islam ijtihad is a continuing feature and is the responsibility of higher religious authorities (Mujtahidun).
In Sunni Islam anyone asked to lead prayers, often larger mosques will have a full-time imam who has undergone theological training. In Shi'a Islam either Ali or one of his successors who function as a unique intermediary between Allah and humanity in every generation.
Faith in Allah, his angels, his books, his prophets and the day of judgement.
Incarnation, the
The Christian doctrine that God became fully human in the person of Jesus Christ.
From a Latin word meaning 'to blow' or 'breathe into or upon' Sometimes used to describe the action of the divine on the mind and heart of a person in such manner as to make them the instrument of divine revelation, either through their words or their deeds.
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A major world religion, the adherents are known as Muslims. To Muslims, Islam is the eternal religion of God (Allah) and as such has no founder and no historical beginning, all the prophets of the Bible, for example, are held to have been Muslims. Non-Muslims would see this religion as beginning with the ministry of the Prophet, Muhammad circa 570 to 632 CE.
A group within Shi'a Islam, whose adherents hold that Isma'il, son of the sixth Imam, should rightfully have been designated the 7th Imam. They therefore follow the teaching of a living Imam who claims descent from Ali, through Isma'il. There are now two groups of Isma'ilis, one known as the Nizari holds the Aga Khan as its living Imam, whilst the Daudi Bohra community is a smaller grouping whose secluded Imam guides his people through an intermediary known as the da'i mutlaq.
Inter-Faith Network
The Inter Faith Network for the UK works to build good relations between the communities of all the major faiths in Britain. The Network links over 85 member bodies These include representative bodies from the major faith communities; national inter faith organisations; local inter faith groups; academic institutions and bodies concerned with multi- faith education. Its Trustees include men and women from the member faiths it links.
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Another name for the patriarch Jacob. Hence all Jews are the children of Israel or Israelites, also a name for the ancestral home of the Jews and the modern state there.